, White Lake
Planting plan created by Watersheds Canada
Funded by • Great Lakes Guardian Community Fund •
Plants & Property
This planting plan is designed based on the land characteristics identified during the day of the site visit. Plants are chosen according to the soil and light conditions on your property. The number of plants chosen for each planting compartment takes into account the square metre area of the space, as well as the amount of current vegetation cover.
Land Characteristics by Compartment
|A||17m||1.5m||25.5m2||normal||sandy, loamy||moist, wet||full sun|
|B||12m||3m||36m2||normal||sandy, loamy||normal||full sun, partial sun|
Plant Selection Summary
The following shrubs and trees are chosen for their suitability and survivability given the current soil and light conditions in each compartment on your property, as well as preferable features.
|Narrow Leaved Meadowsweet||2||2|
|Blue Flag Iris||1||1|
|Oswego Tea (Red Bergamot)||2||2|
|Red Osier Dogwood||3||3|
The following table summarizes key information about each plant selected for your property.
Sweet GaleHeight: 1-2m
Sweet Gale is a medium-sized shrub which grows into a thick bush about 1-2 m tall. This species produces 1-8 cm long, oblong-lanceolate leaves which are finely toothed at the tip and are spirally arranged. When bruised, these leaves give off a pleasant aroma. Male and female catkins are produced on separate plants. The seeds are dispersed from the female plants via water, as they float on two corky bracts. Sweet Gale grows best in moist or wet conditions, acidic soil, and full to partial sun exposure. It is naturally found in bogs, swamps, marshes, and along wet shorelines. This shrub species has nitrogen fixing bacteria in its root nodules, allowing it to convert nitrogen into a usable form. Thus, Sweet Gale can be used on nutrient poor, acidic sites, which may be difficult to plant on for other species. Additionally, being able to convert nitrogen and add nutrients to the soil can be beneficial for other plants in the area. This shrub also provides a good food source for bird species that eat the seeds including Grouse, Chickadees, and Bluebirds. Mammal species like Beavers and White-Tailed Deer also browse on the twigs and leaves of this plant.
Fragrant SumacHeight: 1-2m
The Fragrant Sumac is a medium-sized deciduous shrub within the Cashew family. This species grows between 1-2 meters in height, is multi-stemmed, and produces a round, dense crown composed of erect and spreading branches. Between March and April, small yellow flower clusters bloom on the terminal ends of the branches prior to leaf development. Fruit development begins during late summer. Small, red, hairy berries are produced and can remain on the plant throughout the winter. Male catkins develop on the plant in September. Fragrant Sumac leaves are simple and arranged alternately along the branch. Leaves produced are simple and trifoliate with a large center lobe, appearing similar to Poison Ivy. During the spring and summer, the leaves are light green to green-yellow in colour turning a bright yellow to red or dark purple in autumn. Crushed leaves and stems of the Fragrant Sumac produce a fragrant citrus aroma, hence the common name. The aroma of this shrub is attractive to butterfly species, making it the perfect addition to any butterfly garden. The roots of the Fragrant Sumac are shallow, fibrous, and spread rapidly, making it an ideal choice for stabilizing shorelines and mitigating erosion on steep slopes. Unlike other Sumac species, Fragrant Sumac is significantly less aggressive and easily maintained.
Narrow Leaved MeadowsweetHeight: 1-2m
The Narrow Leaved Meadowsweet is an erect, deciduous shrub, which grows in the shape of a mound. This species develops numerous branches and branchlets, giving it a sparse appearance. Leaves produced are simple and narrow with sharply toothed borders growing alternately along the branches. These bright, light green leaves appear crowded, as they grow close together on the stocks and branches. During the fall, leaves turn a yellow-red or yellow-orange colour. Small white to light pink flower clusters appear in the spring growing in a dense, narrow pyramid at the terminal ends of the branches. During late summer to early fall, these flowers produce smooth, papery seed pods.
Black-Eyed SusanHeight: 1 m
Black-Eyed Susan is a popular biennial or a short-lived perennial wildflower species that typically grows about 1 m in height. Its leaves are green, alternately arranged, lance shaped, and covered with bristly hairs giving the leaf a grey/green colour. The flowers are daisy-like, have 8-20 yellow ray florets surrounding numerous dark brown disk florets, and blooms between June and September. The flowers are beneficial to pollinator species, like bees and butterflies. The seeds are also beneficial to wildlife species, like birds and small mammals. This flower blooms for long periods.
Swamp MilkweedHeight: 1 m
Swamp Milkweed is a beautiful wildflower species that typically grows about 1 m tall. The leaves are light green coloured, narrow, lance shaped, and oppositely arranged. The flowers are showy, fragrant, bright pink, appear in clusters on flowering stems, and bloom between July and August. The flowers give way to large, long and narrow, brown seed pods, which produce an abundance of seeds with tufts of long, white hairs. The flowers are beneficial to pollinator species, like bees and butterflies. As with all Milkweeds, the stem exudes a milky sap when broken, however the sap of the Swamp Milkweed is less milky than other species. This sap is critical for caterpillars of the endangered Monarch Butterfly to deter predators.
Blue Flag IrisHeight: 0.5 m
The Blue Flag Iris is a showy perennial wildflower that typically grows about 0.5 m in height. This plant may also be known by the common name Harlequin Blue Flag. The leaves are light green, sword-shaped, slightly arched or erect, and appear growing out as a cluster around the base of the plant. The attractive blue flowers start to bloom in the early spring, emerging from a tall flowering stalk that can reach up to 1 m. The flowers are beneficial to pollinator species, like bees and butterflies. The seeds are also beneficial to wildlife species, like birds and small mammals.
Blue VervainHeight: 1.5 m
Blue Vervain is a perennial wildflower species that grows about 1.5 m in height. It has a slender, upright form with reddish-green coloured, rough-haired stems. Its leaves are oppositely arranged, lance-shaped, and on short petioles with large serrations along the edge. Occasionally, there are two lobes present at the base of the leaves. The flowers are showy, blueish purple coloured, have five petals, appear on dense spikes at the top of flowering stems, and bloom between July and September. The flowers bloom first at the bottom of the spike, travelling upwards and blooming in bands. This plant spreads well and can form small colonies. The flowers are beneficial to pollinator species, like bees and butterflies. The seeds are also beneficial to wildlife species, like birds and small mammals.
White TurtleheadHeight: 1 m
White Turtlehead is a beautiful wildflower species that can grow up to 1 m in height and spreads about 0.5 m. The leaves are oppositely arranged, dark green coloured, short-stalked, lance-shaped, and have sharply toothed margins. The flowers are whitish pink coloured, shaped like a turtle's head, made of two lips creating a tube, appear in dense spikes at the tip of erect stems, and bloom between August and October. The flowers are beneficial to pollinator species, like bees and butterflies.
Oswego Tea (Red Bergamot)Height: 50 cm
Oswego Tea is a showy perennial wildflower species that typically grows about 50 cm in height. This plant may also be known by the common names Red Bergamot or Scarlet Beebalm. The leaves are dark green, oval shaped, have a minty fragrance. The unique flowers are bright red and grow in dense rounded clusters, with individual tubular flowers that bloom between May and October. The beautiful flowers of Oswego Tea attract various pollinator species like hummingbirds, butterflies, and bees. The Oswego Tea plant is susceptible to a common fungal disease, called powdery mildew, when planted in dry soils. Historically, the leaves of the plant have been used for antiseptic purposes, as well as poultices to heal minor wounds and skin infections.
Cardinal FlowerHeight: 1 m
Cardinal Flower is an attractive herbaceous perennial wildflower that can grown up to 1 m tall. The leaves are mostly basal, dark green, lance shaped, alternately arranged, and have finely toothed margins. The flowers are showy, bright cardinal red colored, tubular with five lips, appear on an erect terminal spike, and bloom between July and September. The flowers are beneficial for pollinator species, like butterflies and hummingbirds. This is a popular plant choice for wet shoreline properties because of its visual appeal and ornamental value.
Indian PaintbrushHeight: 0.5 m
Indian paintbrush is a biennial wildflower that typically grows less than 0.5 m in height. It usually consists of a basal rosette the first year and produces a flowering stalk the second year. The central stem is usually green or reddish brown and covered in small hairs. The leaves are alternately attached, stemless, medium green coloured, have entire margins, are lance shaped, and are deeply divided into 3-5 lobes, becoming smaller as they ascend the stem. The actual flower of the plant is small, yellowish green in colour, and hidden within the large, showy, fan shaped, reddish orange coloured, bracts. The colouring on the bracts look as though they have been dipped in paint, giving the plant its common name. Since this wildflower has no surface for insects to land, it primarily attracts pollinators that can hover, such as Hoverflies and Hummingbirds. The roots of this plant are unique in the way they help to prevent erosion, as it is a partially parasitic plant. Roots grow until they touch the roots of other plants, frequently grasses, and then penetrate the roots of these host plants to obtain a portion of their nutrients. This creates a more intricate root system with other plants around that helps prevent surface soil erosion. However, this rooting ability makes Indian Paintbrush respond poorly to being transplanted.
Swamp RoseHeight: 2m
The Swamp Rose is a beautiful perennial shrub species. It is visually appealing with large pink flowers that last about 6-8 weeks. These flowers have five pink petals, a yellow center, and a pleasant fragrance. This species produces oblong shaped, compound leaves comprised of seven leaflets with serrated edges. The Swamp Rose produces red, round, fleshy fruit called rose hips, which remain on the bush throughout winter. These fruiting bodies provide a winter food source for wildlife, such as Grouse, Black Bears, Deer, and Rabbits. Swamp Rose may be confused with Prickly Wild Rose, which has a similar appearance. However, Swamp Rose can easily be distinguished by the presence of curved thorns, which appear at the nodes of the twigs without any occurring between the nodes. Swamp Rose grows best in moist, rich soils such as swamps and marshy shorelines. However, this species can also tolerate drier, loamy soils.
ButtonbushHeight: 2 m
Buttonbush is a small to medium-sized deciduous shrub species which typically grows about 2 m in height. This plant may also be known by the common name Button Willow. Twigs are slender to stout and dark red-brown in colour with white speckling. The leaves are bright green coloured, shiny, ovate shaped, oppositely arranged, and have entire margins. The flowers are tiny, tubular, white, fragrant, and appear densely on distinctive, spherical clusters in June. These flowers turn into a dense cluster of seeds, which remain on the plant throughout the winter. The flowers are beneficial for pollinator species, including hummingbirds and butterflies. This is a hardy, adaptable species and an excellent choice for planting on wet shoreline sites.
Highbush CranberryHeight: 3 m
Highbush Cranberry is a large deciduous shrub species that typically grows about 3 m in height. The branches on this shrub are dense with arching stems, creating a full form. The leaves are oppositely arranged, Maple leaf shaped, have 3 lobes, and have entire or toothed margins. The flowers are showy, creamy white coloured, appear in flat clusters with larger florets surrounding smaller ones, and bloom between May and June. These flowers change into drooping, bright red berry clusters that persist throughout the winter. While the berries are edible to humans, they are very tart when consumed raw so are typically cooked first. This shrub has very attractive fall foliage, changing a reddish purple colour. The flowers are beneficial to pollinator species, like bees and butterflies. The fruit is beneficial to wildlife species, including birds and small mammals. The root system is extensive, making this shrub valuable for controlling erosion and stabilizing loose soil. This species can be found across Canada from Newfoundland to British Columbia, but is most commonly found in Ontario and Quebec.
Red Osier DogwoodHeight: 1.5-4m
The Red Osier Dogwood is a medium-sized, deciduous shrub native throughout Northern and Western North America. This species is multi-stemmed with numerous erect and ascending bright red branches that create a loose and spreading form. Leaves produced are simple, two-toned with a dark green upper side and light green underside. They are arranged opposite each other along the branches. During the fall, the foliage turns a brilliant red to dark purple. Clusters of small, creamy white flowers form on the terminal ends of the branches between June and July. The Red Osier Dogwood produces blueish-white fruiting bodies during late summer, which may persist throughout the winter. This shrub's berries provide an important winter food source for numerous species, from large deer to small wintering birds.
Black ChokeberryHeight: 1-3m
The Black Chokeberry is a medium sized deciduous shrub with edible fruit. This species requires full sun to partial shade and can tolerate soil conditions from loamy and moist to rocky and dry. Naturally, Black Chokeberry is found in wet wooded areas such as; swamps, along shorelines, and within forest understory. This species is multi-stemmed, and forms thickets from stems which arise from the roots. Leaves are simple, growing alternately along the branch turning a bold red to orange during the fall. During spring, clusters of showy, white flowers appear turning into dark purple berries by fall. This species is resistant to drought, insects, pollution, and disease. The Black Chokeberry is often cultivated as an ornamental plant and food product. Additionally, this species is useful for bank stabilization and erosion control applications.
Wild BergamotHeight: 1 m
Wild Bergamot is a perennial wildflower species that is member of the mint family and can grow about 1 m tall. Its stems are light green and smooth with abundant branching on the upper half. The leaves are oppositely arranged, broadly lanceolate shaped, 6-10 cm long, and have toothed edges. The also leaves emit a aromatic minty/oregano scent when crushed. The flowers are showy, pink/lavender coloured, appear on the ends of flowering stems, and bloom between July and September. The flowers bloom in the center of the head first, moving outwards creating a wreath. The flowers are beneficial to pollinator species, like bees and butterflies. This wildflower spreads well and can be used to naturalize un-vegetated areas. The roots can be useful for controlling erosion and stabilizing shorelines.
- pH: normal
- Depth: potted, bareroot, wildflowers
- Moisture: moist, wet
- Soil Type: sandy, loamy
- Light conditions: full sun
- pH: normal
- Depth: potted, bareroot, wildflowers
- Moisture: normal
- Soil Type: sandy, loamy
- Light conditions: full sun, partial sun
Project by: Watersheds Canada
The following section outlines the total cost of your project. It has been divided into 2 sections; 1- Plants and Material, 2- Services. It also includes the breakdown of the landowner contribution and the portion that will be paid by Watersheds Canada, as outlined in the Project Costs Total table.
The Natural Edge program has received generous funding to help support the costs of plants, materials, and project coordination and delivery, making this program possible.
|Narrow Leaved Meadowsweet||2||$13.00||$26.00|
|Red Osier Dogwood||3||$13.00||$39.00|
|Total Potted plant stock||14||$182.00|
|Blue Flag Iris||1||$8.00||$8.00|
|Oswego Tea (Red Bergamot)||2||$8.00||$16.00|
|Total Wildflowers plant stock||25||$200.00|
|Total Tending materials||$37.05|
|1-Plants and materials|
|Potted plant stock||$182.00|
|Plants & Materials||$419.05|
|Watersheds Canada's Site visit (Site visit in-kind)||1 on 08/09/2018||$150.00||$0.00|
|Mulching & tree guard installation||39||$1.50||$58.50|
|Shipping & handling of materials||$25.00|
|Project management and delivery||$400.00|
|Total Project Costs||Subtotal|
|Total project value (including in kind contributions)||$1,522.05|
|Total eligible costs (excluding in kind contributions)||$1,430.55|
|Watersheds Canada's contribution (75% of eligible costs)||$1,072.91|
|Landowner contribution (25% of eligible costs)||$357.64|
Please indicate your agreement to this proposed plan by signing the following Stewardship Agreement and submitting it, along with your financial contribution, to:
115-40 Sunset Blvd. Perth ON K7H 2Y4
Please note that plant species may need to be changed based on plant stock availability at the time of ordering.
Upon receiving your signed stewardship agreement and financial contribution, a date will be booked to complete the project. Watersheds Canada will supply all plants, materials, and planting labour. If there are particular dates that you would prefer, we will do our best to accommodate your requests.
The Natural Edge Stewardship Agreement with Watersheds Canada
Agreement made this Day of the Month of in the Year .
BETWEEN Ann Blackburn, Alberta, (Hereinafter called the OWNERS)
AND Watersheds Canada, 115-40 Sunset Blvd. Perth ON K7H 2Y4, (Hereinafter called WC)
WHEREAS the Owners and WC have met and discussed plans for shoreline naturalization on the specified area(s) in Schedule A existing on the Owners’ land;
WHEREAS the Owners indicate approval of the project as proposed; and
WHEREAS the project is, or will be for the benefit of the Owners and others;
1. This Agreement shall be in effect for a period of 5 years, commencing with the date of this Agreement.
2. The Owners and WC agree that the areas where the work is to be performed is as described in Schedule A.
3. The Owners grant WC, its contractors, employees and agents, the right to enter the property to perform the work agreed upon as outlined in Schedule A. In addition, WC, its contractors, employees and agents may inspect the work performed for the purposes of monitoring the project and survival assessment, with prior agreement with Owners for date and time of inspection.
4. The Owners agree to contribute the “Landowner contribution (25% of eligible costs)” and pay the costs indicated in Schedule B.
5. In instances where the Owners are to pay WC for work to be performed (outlined in Schedule A), the Owners agree to provide payments to WC prior to the commencement of that operation. Failure of payment shall constitute a breach of this Agreement and the Owners agree this Agreement will be terminated and thereupon the Owners agree to pay WC the estimated costs of the operations of the project completed, if any.
6. The Owners agree, if necessary, to perform a reasonable amount of maintenance, which is described in the Native Plant Care Guide, available at watersheds.ca.
7. If the contractor is required to perform the work outlined in Schedule A, then the contractor carrying out the work on the land described will be required to take out and furnish evidence of a comprehensive policy of public liability and property damage coverage. The contractor and their workers will be required to be in good standing with the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board prior to performing the work.
8. The Owners agree not to remove, destroy or alter the project without prior consultation and approval of WC. Pruning and trimming planted nursery stock, or adding replacement native nursery stock is exempt.
9. The Owners agree not to mow the planted area.
10. The Owners do acknowledge that WC, its contractors, employees and agents, having performed said works, are not under further obligation with respect to survival of nursery stock, inspection, or maintenance.
11. The Owners, in the absence of negligence, hereby remises, releases and forever discharges WC, its contractors, employees and agents from all claims and demands for injuries, including death, loss, damages and costs in any way related to or connected with installation and maintenance of the work described or resulting from any deleterious effects of the work to the land or to the lands and buildings thereon retained by the Owners.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties have agreed to the contents of this plan; SIGNED:
About this program
About Watersheds Canada
Watersheds Canada is a non-profit organization and registered Canadian charity committed to working with landowners, communities, and organizations to protect lakes and rivers through developing effective, transferable, and long-term solutions.
This program was created by Watersheds Canada
We believe that every person has the right to access clean and healthy lakes and rivers in Canada. At Watersheds Canada, we work to keep these precious places naturally clean and healthy for people and wildlife to continue using for years to come. We love working with others to meet the needs of local communities, whether you’re a concerned citizen, a landowner, a lake association looking for help, or a coalition of groups interested in activating your local community.